2.4 Bahda Afkii Masaaradii Hore W/Q:Dr. Suldaan Maxamed Suldaan Ibraahim Siciid (Suldaan Garyare)

2.4 Bahda Afkii Masaaradii Hore

(Ancient Egyptian))

 

Afkii ay ku hadli jireen Masaaradii Hore waxa uu ka mid ahaa qoyska afafka ee loo yaqaan Xemitic-Semitig (Afro-Asiatic). Sida la ogyahay afka Masaaridii hore waxa qoraalkiisa la helay muddo ku siman 2690 Nebi Ciise (cs) hortiis taas oo ka dhiga-ysa in uu ka mid yahay qoraallada dunida ug da’da weyn sida afka Sumariyaanka loo yaqaan ee lagaga hadli jiray dhulkii horey loo oran jiray Mesobotaamiya, maantana loo yaqaan Ciraaq, muddo lagu qiyaaso saddex (3) kun oo sano Nebi Ciise (cs) hortiis. Afka Masaaridii Hore ama la oran karo Qibdigu waxa uu soo maray saddex kal ama marxaladood kuwaas oo kala ah: Afkii Shinka ahaa ama tirtirmay (Archaic Egyptian language), laguna hadli jiray wixii ka horreeyey 2600 Miilaadiga ka hor. Afkii gaboobay (Old Egyptian language) ee isna lagu hadli jiray muddadii u dhexeysay 2686‒2181 Miilaadiga ka hor iyo kii ugu dambeeyey soona gaaray qarnigii todoba iyo tobnaad (17) lana oran jiray Afka Masaaridii Dhexe (Middle Egyptian language). Sida ay rumaysan yihiin khubarada afafka iyo dhaqanku, dhammaan kalalka kala geddisan ee uu soo maray afafka Masaaridii hore ama Qibdigu waxa ay ahaayeen marxalado qoraal gacmeed laga sameeyey, ayna adeegsan jireen Boqorradii Faraaciinta la oran jiray ee ka arrimin jiray dhulkaas muddada dheer waxaana jirta in marxalad kasta uu afkani ahaa mid lagu hadlayey ama la adeegsanayey wax ku siman ama ka badan kun (1000) sano.

Afkan Masaaridii hore ayaa ahaa mid lagu hadli jiray ilaa qarnigii taddoba iyo tobnaad (17) waxaana ku hadli jiray dadkii la oran Qibdiyiinta ee Masar mar ka arrimin jiray. Balse afka imminka lagaga hadlo dalka Masar ayaa ah afka Carabiga waana halbeega afka ee dalka (national language) waxa uuna beddelay afkii Qibdiga ahaa, ka dib markii uu Islaamku soo gaaray dalka Masar, afka Qibdiguna waxa uu ku haray oo keliya Kaniisadda Ortodagiska ee magaalada Aleskandariya (Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria) iyo dhanka cibaadeysiga, inkasta oo la helayo dad gaaraya dhawr boqol si hagaagsanna uga hadli kara afkan Masaaridii hore ama Qibdiga.[1] Islaamka ka hor afkan waxa iyana saamayn weyn ku yeeshay oo qaybo ka mid ah afkaas liqay ama barabixin ku sameeyey afafkii dadyowgii reer Galbeedka ahaa ee dalkaas ku soo duulay, sida Giriigga, Roomaanka iyo dadkii la oran jiray Hyksos kana koobnaa qawmiyado badan oo asal-ahaan ka soo jeeda Galbeedka qaaradda Aasiya, Masarna ku soo duulay oo qabsaday ama degay markii ay taariikhdu ahayd 1650kii Miilaadiga ka hor. Afkan Masaaradii Hore ama Qibdiga ayaa ah mid leh taariikh dheer marka laga hadlayo xagga qoraalka waxa uuna ka mid yahay afafka faca weyn ee la qoray, qoraal gacmeedyana (manuscript) laga hayo waxaana khubarada afafka ku xeeldheeri rumaysan yihiin in uu afkani yahay afka ugu da’da weyn bahda ama qoyska loo yaqaan Xemitic-Semitigga, gaar ahaan marka la tilmaamayo afafka laga hayo qoraal gacmeed. Afkan oo ka mid ah afafka dabarka go’ay marka laga hadlayo tirada dadka ku hadla ayaa, dhanka kale waxa badbaaday oo aan dabargo’in qoraal gacmeedkii laga diyaariyey waana mid soo gaaray horraantii qarnigii todobo iyo tobnaad (17), sida aan kor ku soo xusnayba.

Waxa jirta in af-yaqaanno dhalashadoodu tahay Yurubiyaan ay u kicitimeen dalka maanta loo yaqaan Masar muddadii u dhexeysay qarnigii afar iyo tobnaad (14) ilaa kii lix iyo tobnaad (16), xilligaas oo loo yaqaanay baraaruggii Yurub ee xagga aqoonta iyo farshaxanka (European Renaissance), si ay dabagal iyo baadigoob ugu sameeyaan wixii raad ah ee afkaas ka haray ama ka badbaaday.[2] Khuburadu waxa ay soo ogaadeen ama heleen in dad yar oo ku dhaqan meelaha magaalooyinka ka baxsan loona yaqaan Daabiyadaha ama miyiga (countrysides), ay weli afkaas ku hadlaan laakiinse aan tiro ahaan badnayn. Sida ay tilmaamayaan xeeldheerayaasha afafku ama qaab-dhismeedka (syntax) weeraha iyo hawraartuba, afkanina waxa uu ahaa mid dhammaystiran marka laga hadlayo aqoonta ama seeska ay afafku leeyihiin ama ku qotomaan.

Dadka Masaarida oo ka mid ah ummadihii dunida ugu hor ilbaxay ama nidaamyada samaystay ayaa sababay in ereyo ama weero ka mid ah afkii Masaaridii Hore ama Qibdigu ay ahaadaan kuwo saamayn xagga afka ah ku yeesha afafka lagaga hadlo qaybo ka mid ah qaaradda Yurub ee loo yaqaan Indo-Europeanka. Ilbaxnimada iyo horumarka xagga aqoonta afafka ee ay reer Galbeedka ku faanaan, gaarahaan afka Ingiriisiga iyo afka Giriiggii Hore (Ancient Greek) ayaa laga helayaa ereyo dhawr ah oo la adeegsado marka nidaam ama horumar wax laga tilmaamayo, asal-ahaanna ka soo jeeda ama laga amaahday afkii Masaaridii Hore ama Qibdiga, sida ereyga ebony oo ah looxa, ereyga ivory oo isna ah faanta ama iligga Maroodiga iyo pharaoh oo ah Fircoon, ahna erey ama magac ay iska lahaayeen Boqorradii Qibdiga ahaa ee Masaaridii Hore u arrimin jiray sida kor ku xusanba. Khubarada afafka ku xeeldheer ayaa qaybtood waxa ay rumaysan tahay in afkii Masaaridii Hore iyo afka Qibdigu aysan isku mid ahayn oo afka Qibdigu uu ahaa mid ka dambeeyey afka Masaaridii Hore, soona gaaray qarnigii saddexaad (3) ee Miilaadiga waana mid beddelay af ama qoraal gacmeed kale oo isna la oran jiray Demotiga oo dalka Masar laga adeegsan jiray wixii muddadaas ka horreeyey.[

Dhagaxan waxa ku xardhan hawraar dhammaystiran oo tilmaamaysa qoraal gacmeedkii afkii Masaaridii Hore (Wikipedia).

Dhagaxan waxa ku xardhan hawraar dhammaystiran oo tilmaamaysa qoraal gacmeedkii afkii Masaaridii Hore (Wikipedia)

 

Qoraal gacmeedkani waa mid ka mid ah qoraalladii ugu horreeyey ee laga sameeyey afka Masaaridii Hore ama Qibdiga (Wikipedia)

Qoraal gacmeedkan ayaa isaguna ah mid muujinaya qaabkii ay u qornayd tirada lambarada ee afka Masaaradii Hore ama Qibdigu (Wikepedia).

Qoraal gacmeedkan ayaa isaguna ah mid muujinaya qaabkii ay u qornayd tirada lambarada ee afka Masaaradii Hore ama Qibdigu (Wikepedia).

 

[1] Loprieno, Antonio (1995). Ancient Egyptian: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge University press. 

[2]Allen, James P. (2000). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University press. 

[3]Cabdalla Cumar Mansuur

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