DHAMBAALLADII CABDULLAAHI CIISE (6)

DHAMBAALLADII CABDULLAAHI CIISE (6)

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MEMORANDUM KU SOCOTA QARAMADA MIDOOBAY

 KA NA TIMID ERGADA SOOMAALIDA

KU NA SAABSAN MUSTAQBALKA EX-ITALIAN SOMALILAND

 

September 19, 1949

 

Annaga oo ah Somali Youth League iyo Xamar Youth Club, matalayaasha sharciga ah ee loo igmaday in ay matalaan aqlabiyadda dadka Soomaaliyeed waxa aan dhambaalkaan iyo dhukumintiyadii kale oo ka sii horreeyay ku hagaajinaynaa Qaramada Midoobay iyo qaybo-hoosaadyadeeda kale si aan ugu caddayno mawqifkeenna ku aaddan mustaqbalka mustacmaraddii hore ee Talyaaniga.

Isbahaysiga siyaasadeed ee ururrada kor ku xusani (SYL iyo Xamar Youth Club) waa kuwa keliya ee matalaya danaha dhabta ah ee dhulka Soomaaliyeed [Italian Somaliland]. Xilligii Guddida Baarista ee Afarta Quwadood booqdeen Soomaaliya (January-February, 1948) ururrada kor ku xusani waxa ay abuureen barnaamij siyaasadeed midaysan. Ujeedddooyinka ugu waawayn ee barnaamijkaasi waxa uu ahaa:

A. Madaxbannaani dhammaystiran oo Soomaaliya hesho ka dib 10 sannadood oo Wasaayo Caalami ah korjeegtaynayso mid ka mid ah quwadaha waawaynina maamulayso.

B. In aan Talyaanigu dib dambe Soomaaliya ugu soo noqon nooc kasta iyo weji walba oo uu yahay xataa haddii uu yahay wasaayo ay Qaramada Midoobay korjeegtaynayso.

C. Midnimo degdeg ah oo ummadda Soomaaliyeed yeelato.

Aqlabiyadda dadka Soomaaliyeed waxa ay taageereen barnaamijkan siyaasadeed sida ku cad warbixinta Guddida Baarista ee Afarta Quwadood.

Xubnaha sharfan ee golahani waxa kale oo ay mawqifkeenna ka fiirin karaan qoraallo, dhukumintiyo iyo khudbado aan horay golaha ugu gudbinay.

Isla markii ay golaha Qaramada Midoobay diideen qorshihii imbaraaddooriyadeed ee loo yaqaannay Bevin-Sforza, SYL iyo XYC waxa ay shir u qabteen Salaaddiinta, Madaxdhaqameedyada, Odayaasha, Mashaa’ikhda diinta iyo Nabaddoonnada qabaa’ilka Soomaaliyeed. Ujeeddada shirku waxa uu ahaa dib u qiimaynta dhibaatooyinka ku gadaaman mustaqbalka dalkeenna iyo dadkeenna. Shirar noocaas ah ayaa lagu qabtay caasimadda Muqdisho iyo dhammaan degmooyinka dalka. Intii shirarkani socdeen labada urur waxa ay diyaariyeen barnaamij midaysan kaas oo ay hor dhigeen Salaaddiinta, Madaxdhaqameedyada, Odayaasha, Mashaa’ikhda diinta iyo Nabaddoonnada qabaa’ilka Soomaaliyeed kuwaas oo ayaguna barnaamijka ansixiyay ka dib markii ay qiimeeyeen la na tashadeen qabiillada ay hoggaamiyaan.

Laamaha gudaha ee SYL ee dhammaan dalku waxa ay ergooyin u soo direen magaalada Muqdisho si ay qayb uga noqdaan doodda ku saabsan soojeedinaha SYL. Ka dib guddiyada laamaha SYL ee qaybaha dalku waxa ay shirar u qabteen Salaaddiinta, Madaxdhaqameedyada, Odayaasha, Mashaa’ikhda diinta iyo Nabaddoonnada qabaa’ilka ee degmooyinkooda (local SYL branches). Dhammaan Salaaddiinta, Madaxdhaqameedyada, Odayaasha, Mashaa’ikhda diinta iyo Nabaddoonnada qabaa’ilku waxa ay si buuxda u ansixiyeen barnaamijka.

Barnaamijku waxa uu u qornaa sidan:

1. Waxa aan Golaha Guud ee Qaramada Midoobay waydiisanaynaa in ay si degdeg ah ugu dhawaaqaan madaxbannaani degdeg ah oo Soomaaliya hesho.

2. (A) Haddii golaha sharfani xikmad u arko in Soomaaliya la hoosgeeyo Wasaayo Caalami ah wax diidmo ah kama qabno waayo haddii meesha laga saaro soo noqoshada xukun Talyaaniga oo Soomaaliya ku soo noqda nooc kasta iyo weji walba oo uu yahay xataa haddii uu yahay wasaayo ay Qaramada Midoobay korjeegtaynayso.

(B) Haddii go’aan noocaas la qaato (in wasaayo caalami ah Soomaaliya la hoosgeeyo), waxa aan doorbidaynaa xukun toos ah oo Qaramada Midoobay ah kaas oo aan ka badnayn muddo gaaban oo Soomaalidu ku gaarayso madaxbannaani buuxda; soojeedinta noocaas ah, waa in muddada gaaban aysan ka badan ugu badnaan 10 sannadood.

3. Sidaa oo kale waxa aan albaabka u furaynaa muddo gaaban in ay Soomaaliya si wadajir ah u maamulaan wasaayo caalami ah (dhawr dal) ama hal dal kaas oo aan Talyaanigu ka mid ahayn, muddo aan 10 sannadood ka badnayn.

4. Haddii ay dhacdo in Soomaaliya wasaayo caalami ah la hoosgeeyo sida ku xusan qodobbada 1 iyo 2, Soomaalidu waa in ay muddadaas tobanka sannadood ah yeeshaan maamul daakhili ah oo arrimaha gudaha ayagu la wareegaan maamulka wasaayaduna ka caawiyo arrimaha farsamada iyo maamulka.

5. Sidaas darteed waxa aan halkan ku caddaynayaa in aan si buuxda uga soo horjeedno qorshe walba iyo soojeedin kasta oo Talyaaniga dib loogu soo celinayo dalkeenna.

6. Waxa aan doorbidaynaa dhimasho iyo geeriwadareed intii Talyaanigu dib noogu soo noqon lahaa.

7. Waxa aan doonaynaa midnimo Soomaaliyeed oo dhexmarta Soomaalidii Talyaaniga, tan Ingiriiska, NFD, Soomaalida Faransiiska iyo tan Itoobiya haysato.

8. Waxa aan rumaysannahay in doonisteenna midnimo Soomaaliyeed ay muhiim u tahay horumar iyo daryeel dhab ah oo Soomaalidu gaarto. Sidaas awgeed waxa aan diyaar u nahay in aan wax walba u hurno jidkii aan ku gaari lahayn midnimo Soomaaliyeed.

Mid walba oo ka mid ah Salaaddiinta, Madaxdhaqameedyada, Odayaasha, Mashaa’ikhda diinta iyo Nabaddoonnada waxa uu saxiixay baaq uu ku caddaynayo oggolaanshihiisa barnaamijka. Baaqu waxa uu dhigan yahay sidan:

“WE, the Sultans, Chiefs, Holy Sheikhs, Elders, Akils and Notables of the Tribes (name of tribe) residing (place) district (district) province (province), after having received copies—in Arabic—of the program of the Somali Youth League concerning the future settlement of Somaliland; after having examined and carefully considered the contents of the said program; after having explained—in Somali—the contents of the same to our people, consulted with them and obtained their general consent; WE, on behalf of our Tribe, do hereby approve unanimously and voluntarily the program of the Somali Youth League concerning the future settlement of Somaliland. Furthermore, we do hereby declare and pledge ourselves to support morally and materially, subject to the limit of our possibilities, any request advance by the Somali Youth League necessary for the implementation of the said program.” 

Sida aad ku arki doontid baaqa kore, ka sokow in Salaaddiinta, Madaxdhaqameedyada, Odayaasha, Mashaa’ikhda diinta iyo Nabaddoonnadu ay ansixiyeen barnaamijka waxa ay sidaa oo kale ballanqaadeen ay muruq iyo maalba ku taageeri doonaan codsi walba oo ururrada barnaamijkani hordhigaan kaas oo lagu dhaqangalinayo barnaamijka.

Ilaa iyo 42 baaq iyo in ka badan 2000 oo saxiix kuwaas oo ay si sharci ah u saxiixeen Salaaddiinta, Madaxdhaqameedyada, Odayaasha, Mashaa’ikhda diinta iyo Nabaddoonnada qabaa’ilka Soomaaliyeed ee ku dhaqan mustacmaraddii hore ee Talyaaniga, iyo MEMORANDUM-kan baa la hordhigay Xoghayaha-Guud ee Qaramada Midoobay.

Hoos waxa aan ku soo koobnay sababaha labadan urur ku qasbay qabanqaabada barnaamijkan:

QODOBKA KOOWAAD ee barnaamijku waxa uu ku baaqayaa madaxbannaani degdeg ah oo Soomaaliya hesho, waayo waxa aan si wacan u rumaysannahay in gumaysigu uusan weligii dadkeenna u diyaarinayn madaxbannaani, qaasatan marka gumaysu dano badan gashado dalkeenna. Dawladda gumaysu iska dhaaf in ay madaxbannaani inoo diyaarisee waxa ay xagaldaacin doontaa isku day walba oo aan ku gaarayno madaxbannaani.

Waa xaalad dabiici ah in gumaysiga shisheeyuhu si uu u difaaco danihiisa dhaqaale iyo kuwiisa siyaasadeed in uu cagta hoosteeda galiyo horumar walba oo aan gobonnimo ku gaari karno. Xaqiiqdii dawladaha gumaysigu arrintan ma qiranayaan balse waxa ay doonayaan in ay indhaha carro nooga shubaan ayaga oo leh waxa aan idiin kula joognaa si aad wanaagsan iyo faa’ido ku heshaan. Alla deeqsisanaa! Waxa aynnu joognaa 1949 ma ahan waqtigii na la ku khiyaami jiray hadallada wanwaanaagsan. Taasina waa sababta aan madaxbannaani degdeg ah u dalbanayno.

Waxa aan leenahay khibrad nagu filan oo aan ku soo aragnay quwadaha gumaysiga iyo isyeelyeelkooda. Haddaba si cad baan ugu oranaynaa “faraha naga qaada.” Gumaysi na dul yuurara ilaa waqti aan la aqoon waxa aan ka doorbidaynaa in ay dalkeenna iyo dadkeenna noo dhaafaan.

Waxa ay na la tahay in dhammaan dadyowga adduunku ay uurka hooyadood kala soo baxeen xaqa madaxbannaanida , ruux ahaan iyo maal ahaanba. Waxa aan rumaysannahay in dhammaan dadyowga adduunku si walba oo ay u dibdhacsan yihiin ay xaq u leeyihiin in lagu caawiyo sida ugu fudud ee ay ku gaari lahaayeen xornimo.

Taariikhdu waxa ay ina baraysaa in dadyowga maanta adduunka ugu horumarsani ay mar ahaayeen kuwo dib u dhacsan oo jaahiliin ah. Qaybo badan oo ka mid ah dadyowga iyo qaramada xorta ahi ma ahan kuwo aad u horumaray waana kuwo weli u baahan caawin si la mid ah sida dadkeennu ugu baahan yihiin. Qaramadani waxa ay ku naalloonayaan gobonnimo waxa ayna haystaan fursad ay si xawli ah ugu gaari karaan horumar dhaqaale, mid siyaasadeed, mid dhaqan iyo bulsho. Halkii dadkeennu ka heli lahaayeen fursad tan la mid ah, [nasiibdarro] dadkeennu waxa ay ku hoos jiraan quwadaha gumaysiga kuwaas oo ujeeddada keliya ee ay leeyihiin tahay in ay mooraduugaan dalkeenna iyo dadkeenna; ay ka dhigtaan ila ay ka sameeyaan khayraad ceeriin, shaqaale jaban oo qasab ah, suuq ay waxsoosaarkooda keenaan, iyo saldhigyo ciidan iyo kuwo istaraatiiji iyo waxii la mid ah. Iyo in ay dadkeenna ku hayaan boos liita dhaqaale ahaan, bulsho ahaan, dhaqan ahaan iyo siyaasad ahaanba; iyo in ay dib u dhigaan dadkeenna horumarkooda xag dhaqaale, xag siyaasadeed, xag dhaqan iyo xag bulshaba.

Inkasta oo dadkeennu dib dhacsan yihiin, Yeelkeed’e dadkeennu waxa ay awoodaan in ay xallistaan dhibaatooyinkooda gudaha ee dalkooda. Dabcan, waa aan ku baraarugsannahay dadkeenna iyo dalkeennu waxa ay u baahan yihiin caawimaad farsamo iyo mid kaleba oo ay ka helaan dadyowga horumaray ee adduunka. Waxa aan rumaysannahay tan macnaheedu ma ahan in aan aqbalno maamul gumaysi. Haddii sida keliya ee aan caawimaad ku heli karno sidaan tahay [maamul gumaysi], waxa aan doorbidaynaa in aan xor ahaanno si walba oo aan u dibdhacsannahay.

U fiirso dalalka xorta ah ee madaxabannaan haddana u baahan caawimaad farsado iyo mid horumarineed oo dadkoodu gaaraan. Dalalkani waxa ay haystaan fursado ay caawimaado uga heli karaan dalalka horumaray iyo hay’adaha Qaramada Midoobay. U fiirso dalalka mar dhow helay madaxbannaanida, qaar dalalkan ka mid ahi waxa ay soo mareen qarniyo badan oo gumaysi ah. Haddii aad isbarbardhigtid horumarka degdegga ah ee dalalkani gaareen muddada gaaban (hal ama labo sano) iyo qarniyadii badnaa ee gumaysiga shisheeye ku hoos jireen, waa aad la tacajabaysaa. Maanta dalalkan cusubi waxa ay higsanayaan horumar iyo barwaaqo ayaga oo aan ka cabsanayn faragalin shisheeye.

Farqadda (A) ee QODOBKA LABAAD ee barnaamijka waxa aad ku arki doontaa in ururrada barnaamijka dajiyay ay ilaa xad tanaasul macquul ah sameeyeen taas oo ah haddii xubnaha sharfan ee golahani xikmad u arkaan in Soomaaliya ay hoosgeeyaan Wasaayo Caalami ah aynaan waxba ka qabin, waa haddii meesha laga saaro soo noqoshada Talyaaniga ee dalkeenna. Hoos waxa aan ku soo koobnay sababaha aan u cuskanayno diidmadeenna Talyaaniga:

A. Talyaanigu waxa uu Soomaalida ka soomiyay aqoonta iyo waxbarashada kontonkii sannadood ee uu xukumayay,

B. Soomaalida waxaa laga ilaaliyay ilaha dhaqaalaha, waayo muwaaddiniin Talyaani ah ayaa kooto loogu xiray dhammaan ganacsiga iyo warshadaha dalka, halka dadkeenna lagu koobay nadiifiyayaal, ilaaliyayaal, tarjubaanno, cunno kariyayaal, kablayeeriyo iyo askar.

C. Soomaalida waxaa laga mamnuucay in ay samaystaan ururro bulsho iyo kuwo siyaasadeed. Xorriyadda hadalka iyo xorriyadda dhaqdhaqaaqa waa laga ilaaliyay.

D. Soomaalida waxaa loo la dhaqmay sidii duunyo la leeyahay oo kale; Soomaalida waxaa la dejiyay teendhooyin wasakh badan oo aad u fayadhowr liita. Haddii Talyaanigu ku faanaan in ay dalkeenna ka dhiseen guryo iyo waddooyin qurux badan, waa in la xusuusiyo in guryaha iyo waddooyinkaas loo dhisay Talyaaniga oo keliya. Haddii maanta aad booqatid Soomaaliya waxa aad ogaanaysaa in Talyaanigu aysan ku talagalin wax wanaag ah in ay Soomaalidu u sameeyaan.

E. Talyaanigu waa dal sabool ah oo iska dhaaf in uu Soomaaliya maalgeliye’e aan dalkiisa maalgalin u samayn karin.

F. Soomaalidu waxa ay doonayaan midnimo ay yeeshaan dhammaan dhulalka Soomaaliyeed, sidaas darteed haddii Talyaanigu dib u soo noqdo Soomaalidu ma gaarayso doonisteeda.

Sida aan ku xusnay qodobada A, B, C iyo D, konton sannadood oo Talyaanigu na maamulayeen waxa ay nagu reebeen nabar xanuun badan, sidaas darteed Soomaalidu sinnaba ku ma rumaysan karaan Talyaaniga ayaa si wanaagsan u la dhaqmaya.

Intaas waxaa dheer, maamulkii Talyaanigu waxa uu Soomaalida ka soomiyay dhul beereedka asaga oo gacanta u galiyay dad Talyaani ah halka uu Soomaalidu ka dhigtay shaqaale xoog loogu shaqaysto. Xoog ku shaqaalaysiintaas waxaa loo yaqaannay “colonia” kaas oo ahaa nidaam gaboodfalkiisa aan wax lagu cabbiraa jirin. Si aan aragti kaaga siinno hannaankaas bini’aadannimada ka baxsan aan soo xiganno qoraalkii Ingiriisku soo saaray 1944:

“This labour shortage, which at one time threatened to stop production altogether, was caused by the wholesale refusal of the Somalis to continue to work for the Italians. This was hardly surprising. For the circumstances under which labour had been recruited were investigated, a situation was disclosed even less tolerable than the state of Mogadishu jail. Under the “colonia” system, men, women and children had been taken by force from remote places and condemned to an indefinite period of servitude on Italian farms. To quote from an official report: “Rations were grossly inadequate both quality and quantity, and pay varied from one to three Lire a day. Bachelors were forced to marry women who had been born and bred on the estate. Punishment, inflicted by the resident on the ex-parte representations of the employer, was brutal and excessive. For a first offence of disobedience or indiscipline, fifty lashes with a hippopotamus-hide whip was a common award, and for a second offence, the victim was strung up for several hours on a gallows, with his toes just clear of the ground, suspended by chains attached to wooden billets under his armpits, and with his hands handcuffed behind his back. It is not unnatural that the native labouringb population regarded our coming as a deliverance from their Italian oppressors and that they resolutely and determinedly refused to return to work for them, in spite of our efforts to persuade them to do so.” They had had enough of slavery. (The First to be Freed, p. 60.)

Soomaalidu waa soo arkeen in ku filan oo gumaysi iyo cabburis Talyaani ah muddo dheer ka hor Faashiistihii Talyaaniga. Soomaalidu weligood ma illoobi doonaan faajirnimadii maamulka Talyaaniga. Soomaalida Talyaani waa u Talyaani, ha ahaado Demo’Christians, Fascist regime, Communist, Nazi, Socialist, Republican, Liberal. Soomaalidu u ma kala duwana Mussolini iyo Signor De Gasperi; iyo Count Ciano iyo Coun Sforza.

Farqadda (B) ee QODOBKA LABAAD ee barnaamijku waxa uu muujinayaa doorbidkeenna maamul toos ah oo Qaramada Midoobay maamulayso kaas oo aan ka badnayn toban sanandood. Waxa aan rumaysannahay in maamul Qaramada Midoobay ah aan ku gaari karno doonista gobonnimo iyo daryeelka dadkeenna. Waxa aan ku qanacsannahay in maamul toos ah oo Qaramada Midoobay ah lagu hirgalin karo ruuxda qodobka 73aad ee axdiga Qaramada Midoobay.

Intii ay socotay dooddii kalfadhigii hore ee Golaha Guud ee Qaramada Midoobay in aragtida Wasaayo Qaramada Midoobay ay heshay taageero culus. Waxaa xusid mudan in taageerada ugu badani ay ka imaanaysay dalalka Hindiya, Baakistaan, Baarma iyo kuwo kale. Dalalkan oo soo maray qarniyo badan oo gumaysi ahi waxa ay ku baraarugsan yihiin dhibaatooyinka gumaysiga.

Si loo xoojiyo kalsoonida Qaramada Midoobay iyo dalalka gumaysiga ku jira, Xoghayaha-Guud ee Qaramada Midoobay waxa uu ku taliyay in mustacmaradihii hore ee Talyaaniga la hoosgeeyo Wasaayo Qaramada Midoobay ah. Aan soo xiganno hadalkii Xoghayaha-Guud uu jeediyay 30kii Juun, 1949:

“The General Assembly at its third regular session did not reach an agreement on the disposition of the former Italian Colonies. The question will come before the fourth regular session of the General Assembly this autumn. The debate on this question at the second part of the third session was significant in several ways. It reflected the growing influence of the nations of Asia and Africa. Those nations played a decisive part in preventing the adoption of a compromise proposal which they felt was unsatisfactory to a majority of the inhabitants of the Territories concerned. The debate also brought forth considerable support for the concept of a direct United Nations trusteeship, a proposal originally suggested by the United States Government at the first London meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers. I recognise the political and practical difficulties involved in a direct United Nations trusteeship for the Territories during the relatively brief period that may precede their independence. Nevertheless, I believe that statesmanship on the part of the government could lead to such a solution of the problem, and that the political difficulties could be dealt with if the practical difficulties could be overcome. The best solution, in my opinion, would be a direct United Nations trusteeship with an administrator responsible solely to the trusteeship Council. It is, of course, for the member governments to decide, but I feel sure that such a bold forward step would help the peoples of the territories concerned to follow the peaceful path toward self-government or independence, and that it would strengthen tje confidence of dependent peoples all over the world in the United Nations and in the member governments who would have made such a solution possible.” 

Qaar ka mid ah quwadaha waawayn baa qorshahan u arka mid xal ah. Qorshahan markii koowaad waxaa soo bandhigay dawladda Maraykanka. Soofiyeetka iyo Shiinuhuna waxa ay doorbideen in mustacmaradihii hore ee Talyaaniga la hoosgeeyo Wasaayo Qaramada Midoobay maamusho.

QODOBKA SADDEXAAD ee barnaamijka waxa aad ku arkaysaa in aan albaabka u furnay in Wasaayo Caalami ah ama mid dal gaar ah oo Soomaaliya la hoosgeeyo haddii aan Talyaanigu ku jirin.

Inkasta oo aynaan doonayn haddana waa aan ku qasbanaanay in aan qodobkaan ku darno. Sababta aan ugu qasbanaanay waa in aan ku baraarugsannahay haddii dal ka mid ah quwadaha waawayn na loo dhiibo, waxa aan rumaysannahay in dalkaas uusan waxba ka duwanaan doonin Talyaaniga. Yeelkeed’e, waxa aan si walba uga soo horjeednaa soo noqoshada Talyaaniga, waayo waxa aan soo aragnay gumaysiga Talyaani dimoqraaddi ah iyo mid Faashiiste ah.

In qodobkan ku darno annaga oo ka cagajiidayna waxa ay tusaale u tahay in aan xal doonayno.

QODOBKA AFRAAD ee barnaamijku waxa uu ku saabsan yahay dalabkeenna maamul daakhili ah.

QODOBKA SHANAAD ee barnaamijka waxa aad ku arki doontaa in aan gebi ahaanba diiddannahay qorshe walba iyo soojeedin walba oo Talyaaniga dib na la kugu soo celinayo. Sidaa oo kale QODOBKA LIXAAD waxa aan ku caddaynay in aan geeriwadareed ka xigno ku hoos noolaashaha Talyaaniga.

Intii ay socotay dooddii waydiinta ku saabsan mustacmaradihii hore ee Talyaaniga kalfadhigii hore ee Golaha, qaar ergooyinka ka mid ah ayaa sheegay in Talyaaniga uu ka dhacay isbeddal maamul, Talyaaniga cusubina uu yahay ku dimoqraaddi ah. Xubnaha sharfan ee golahani waxa ay ogyihiin mawqifkeenna ku aaddan Talyaaniga cusub kaas oo aan si joogto ah ugu caddaynay in Soomaalida aysan u kala duwanayn Mussolini iyo Signor De Gesperi; iyo Talyaaniga cusub iyo kii hore. Hoos waxa aan ku soo koobnay sababaha aan sidaas u leennahay:

Talyaanigu waxa uu Soomaaliya qabsaday waqti dheer ka hor dhalashadii Faashiistaha. Tani waa dhammaadkii qarnigii hore markaas oo Talyaanigu dimoqraaddi ahaa. Talyaaniga dimoqraaddiga ah ayuu ahaa midkii abuuray mustacmaraddii Eritrea dhawr sannadood ka hor inta uusan Soomaaliya qabsan. Talyaaniga dimoqraaddiga ah ayuu ahaa midkii Liibiya qabsaday ka dib markii uu Turkiga ka adkaaday. Ujeeddada keli ahna waxa ay ahayd in ay gumaystaan oo mooraduugaan dhulalka ay qabsadeen. Talyaanigu waxa uu Soomaaliya iyo dalalka kale ee Afrika u qabsaday keliya in uu gaaro riyadiisa ah in uu abuuro mustacmarado uu gumaysto u ja isticmaalo saldhigyo ciidan oo istaraatiiji ah. Sidaa oo kale meesha kama saari karno in Talyaanigu doonayo in uu ciribtiro dadyowga Afrika si ay dhul ugu sameeyaan waxa ay ku tilmaameem Talyaaniga dheeraadka ah (Italian surplus).

Inkasta oo Mussolini xukunka yimid dhammaadkii 1922 haddana saamaynta Faashiisimku Afrika waxa uu ka bilowday bilo un ka hor duullaankii Talyaanigu ku qabsaday Itoobiya Oktoobar, 1935. Duullaankaas qudhiisu waxa uu ahaa mid ay horay u sii diyaarisay dawladdii dimoqraaddiga ahayd ee Mussolini ka horraysay, markaas oo Talyaanigu isku dayay in uu Itoobiya qabsado dhammaadkii qarnigii tagay. Laakiin qorshahaas dib baa loo dhigay ka dib markii Talyaaniga looga adkaaday dagaalkii Adwa ee uu Itoobiya la galay 1896.

Talyaanigii Faashiisimka ka horreeyay buu ahaa kii meelmariyay xeerarkii bini-aadnimada ka baxsanaa ee cunsiriyadda badnaa ee uu Soomaaliya iyo Afrikaan kale ku soo rogay. Maamulkaas buu ahaa kii boobay dhul beereedka dadkeenna, dadkeennana ku qasbay beerafalid qasab ah iyo in ay dad Talyaani ah qasab ugu shaqeeyaan.

Imminkana aan dhawr eray ka dhahno xukuumadda Talyaaniga ee hadda xilka haysa ee uu hoggaamiyo Signor De Gasperi. Badi hoggaamiyayaasha waxa loogu yeero Talyaaniga cusub ee dimoqraaddiga ah waa isla kuwii hoggaamin jiray Talyaaniga Faashiisimka ka horreeyay. Xaqiiqdii, Count Sforza, Wasiirka Arrimaha Dibadda ee Talyaaniga cusub iyo qaar kale oo badan waxa ay hoggaamin jiray maamulkaas. Intaas waxaa dheer, Faaashiistayaal si wacan loo garanayo ayaa jagooyin sarsare ka haya xukuumadda hadda xilka haysa. Waxaa ka mid ah Faashiistayaashaas kuwo dambiyo dagaal galay oo uu ka mid yahay Enrico Cerulli oo mar ahaan jiray Barasaab Kuxigeenkii Italian Empire of East Africa.

Talyaanigu 1941kii ayuu lumiyay dhammaan sheegashooyinkii Mustacmaradeheedi Bariga Afrika, waxa uu na saxiixay heshiis nabadeed kaas oo uu uga tanaasulay dhammaan xuquuqihii uu sheegan jiray. Maanta, sagaal sanandood ka dib weli waxaa shaqaynaya Wasaaraddii Mustacmaradihii Talyaaniga waxaana ka shaqeeya ilaa 16,000 oo shaqaale si wacan u tababaran kuwaas oo khabiiriin ku ah cabburinta dadyowga. Tani waxa ay caddayn u tahay in xukuumadda Signor De Gasperi ay weli ku raadjoogto dib u qabsashada Mustacmaradeheedi hore iyo Itoobiya, si uu u waraabiyo harraadka uu weli Talyaanigu u qabo abuurista Imbaraaddooriyad Talyaani ah. Waxaaba laga yaabaa in Talyaanigu qorshaynayo qabsashada dalal Eeshiyaan ah maadaama dhammaam qaaradda Afrika gacanta ugu jirto quwadaha kale ee reer Yurub.

Dadkeennu waxa ay ka dharagsan yihiin haddii Talyaanigu ku guulaysto doonistiisa Imbaraaddooriyad raadiska ah uu na dalkeenna dib qabsado in aan dadkeennu dib dambe u arki doonin gobonnimo madaxbannaanina gaari doonin. Dadka Soomaaliyeed waa u dhan yihiin diidmada Talyaanigii la necbaa, soo noqoshadiisana geeriwadareed bay ka xigaan.

QODOBADA TODDOBAAD iyo SIDEEDAAD ee barnaamijku waxa ay ku saabsan yihiin su’aasha midnimada Soomaaliyeed. Waxa aan yaqiinsannahay in midnimo Soomaaliyeed ay muhiim u tahay daryeel iyo horumar dhab ah oo dadkeennu gaaro. Dhammaan Soomaalidu waa mid qur ah oo hal isir ah, hal af, hal diin, hal dhaqan iyo hal habnololeed leh. Waxaa na la dhexdhigay xudduud macmal ah oo aan wax loogik ah cuskanayn. Kala qaybinta dadkeenna loo qaybiyay shanta qaybood waxa uu dib u dhigay horumarka dadkeenna.

Dhammaan Soomaalidu waxa ay doonayaan midnimo si aan shaki ku jirin. Markii Guddida Baarista ee Afarta Quwadood Soomaaliya booqdeen 1948, dhammaan dhulalka Soomaaliyeed waxaa ka yimid ergooyin dalbanaya midnimo iyo madaxbannaani Soomaaliyeed. Waxa aan doonaynaa midnimo ay yeeshaan Soomaalidii Talyaaniga iyo dhammaan Soomaalida kale maxaayeelay gacanka Soomaalidu (Somali peninsula) waa mid la wada garanayo. Ugu horrayn, dhaqaalaheenna ayaa isku xiran; labo, Soomaalidu waa hal isir; saddex, Soomaalidu hal af bay ku hadashaa; afar, Soomaalidu hal diin bay aamisan yihiin. Sidaas awgeed, isku xirnaanshaheenna dhaqaale, isir, afeed, diimeed, dhaqan iyo dabeecad baa qasan ka dhigaya unkidda qaran mid ah.

Sidaas daraaddeed waxa aan dareensannahay, xaqiiqo ahaan in aynaan tayadaan qarankeenna uga faa’idaysan karin ilaa aan hal maamul iyo hal qaran samaysanno. Xudduudaha macmalka ah ee imminka na dhexyaallaahi waxa ay abuureen dhibaato baaxad leh. Waxaa na la kala qaybiyay walaalaheen dhaqaale ahaan, maamullada, cashuuraha, kastamada iyo lacagaha kala duwani waxa ay nagu adkeeyeen horumar aan si wadajir ah u gaarno. Sidaa oo kale afafka [shisheeye] kala duwan ee dhulalka Soomaaliyeed laga adeegsado waxa ay abuureen curyaamin dhaqan.

 

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Cali M. Diini May 3, 2022

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