DHAMBAALADDII CABDULLAAHI CIISE (1)

 

DHAMBAALLADII CABDULLAAHI CIISE (2)

Warqaddan furani waxa ay ka mid ahayd warqado iyo qoraallo isdabajoog ahaa oo Cabdullaahi Ciise Maxamuud qoray berigii uu New York u joogay qaddiyadda gobonnimada Soomaaliya. Warqaddan oo Af Ingiriisi ku qornayd waxa aan doorbidnayd in aan dadka Soomaalida Af Soomaaligu ugu tarjunno. Akhris wacan.

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QARAMADA MIDOOBAY ee YURUB

                           Mise 

QARAMADA MIDOOBAY ee ADDUUNKA?

Warqad Furan oo ku Socota Dawladaha Xubnaha ka ah Qaramada Midoobay   

September 29, 1949

 

Annaga oo aad uga shallaysan in na lagu takhaantukhiyay in aan warqaddan u xulanno cinwaan aan wanaagsanayn, haddana, Yeelkeed’e, waxaa jira sababo aan [cinwaankan] u xulannay.

Ugu horrayn waxa aan jecel nahay in aynnu caddayno in ujeeddada warqaddani aysan ahayn abuuridda muran iyo dhaliilo aan macne ku fadhin. Xaqiiqdii si wanaagsan baan u ogsoonnahay in aynaan taas waxba ka faa’idaynin. Dhambaallada warqaddani waa xaqiiq—xaqiiq sida aynnu u aragno iyo sida aynnu u qiimaynnay.

Nasiibdarro, qaar ka mid ah dawladaha xubnaha ka ah Qaramada Midoobay oo qaarkood ay yihiin quwadaha waawayn, waxa ay caddeeyeen doonistooda ah in ay ururka caalamiga ah [QM] u adeegsadaan danaha reer Yurub intii lagu gudajiray dooddii waydiinta mustacmaradihii hore ee Talyaaniga ee kalfadhigii hore ee Golaha Guud ee Qaramada Midoobay, dalalkani waxa ay halkan u joogaan u adeegidda danaha reer Yurub oo qur ah. Xaqiiqdii, waxa ay inkireen doonista iyo daryeelka [dadka] ku dhaqan mustacmaradihii hore ee Talyaaniga waxa ayna isku dayeen in ay dhulalkan u qaybiyaan dhawr quwadood oo gumaystayaal ah.

Waxaa yaab iyo anfariir ummadaha la gumaysto gaar ahaan kuwa ku dhaqan mustacmaradihii hore ee Talyaaniga ku noqday taageerada xooggan ee sheegashada caddaaladdarrada ah ee gumaysiga Talyaanigu heshay. Fadlan ma waydiin karnaa sababta ay tani ku dhacday? Miyaan rumaysannaa in sheegashada caddaaladdarrada ah ee gumaysiga Talyaanigu ay taageeradan xooggan ku heshay ay tahay keliya in Talyaanigu yahay qaran reer Yurub ah?

Maadaama aynnu nahay dadka arrinta Somaliland (Italian Somaliland) si toos ah u qusayso, waxa aynnu jecel nahay in aan arrintas si gaar ah wax uga dhahno. Kalfadhigii hore, goluhu waxa uu eegay, inkasta oo uusan go’aan kamadambays ah ka gaarin, aayaha dadka Soomaaliyeed iyo ubadkooda iyo aayaha dalkooda. Doonista dadka Soomaaliyeed waxa lagu diiwaangeliyay [qoray] warbixintii Guddidii Baarista ee Afarta Quwadood¹ kuwaas oo Somaliland booqday horraantii 1948, iyo dhukumintiyada kale ee dib [guddida] loo [gu) soo gudbiyay. Dhukumintiyadani waxa ay sida dharaarta u caddeeyeen in Soomaalidu aysan doonayn aqbalina doonin xukun dambe oo Talyaani nooc kasta iyo weji walba oo uu lahaadaba, xataa haddii uu yahay wasaayo ay Qaramada Midoobay korjeegtaynayso. Soomaalidu waxa ay si joogto ah ugu celceliyeen in ay geeri wadareed ka doorbidayaan nolol ay mar labaad ku hoos noolaadaan xukun Talyaani.

Tiro wayn oo dawlado ahi waxa ay inkireen doonistaas dadka Soomaaliyeed waxa ayna isku dayeen in ay dadka Soomaaliyeed ku qasbaan xukunka macangagga ah ee Talyaaniga ilaa iyo waqti aan xaddidnayn. Intii ay socotay doodda waydiintaan (aayaha Italian Somaliland) waxaa si murugo leh inoogu caddaatay in dawladaha qaarkood ka welwelayaan danaha bulshada tirada yar ee Talyaaniga ah ee nool Somaliland— qiyaastii 2000 oo qofood, halka ay inkireen doonista iyo daryeelka dad Soomaaliyeed [ee dhulka iska leh]. Miyaan ogaan karnaa sababta? Sababtu ma in Talyaanigu reer Yurub yihiin baa?

Dadkeennu waxa ay ka qaybqaateen dagaalkii looga soo horjeeday Talyaaniga iyo xulafadoodi Naasiga-Fashiistaha (Nazi-Fascist) dhiiggeenana waxa aan si bilaash ah ugu shubnay qaddiyadda xorriyadda taas oo la inoo ballanqaaday. Run ahaantii waa aan yaabnay, anfariirnay oo dawakhnay markii aan maqalnay oo akhrinnay in dawladaha qaarkood doonayaan in ay dadkeenna, dhulkeenna iyo ubadkeennaba dib gacanta ugu geliyaan dawladda Talyaaniga taas oo xadgudub ku ah qayimmada wanaagsan, caddaaladda iyo dadnimada. Waxa ay dadkeenna ugu muuqataa in loo xoreeyay keliya in dib loogu celiyo gumaysi mar labaad.

Isla markii uu dhammaaday dagaalkii ka dhanka ahaa Naasigii-Fashiista, waxa aynnu filaynnay in xulafada guulaysatay ay ka dhabayn doonaan ballamahoodi madaxbannaanideenna iyo xorriyaddeenna. Filashadeennu waxa ay sii korodhay markii la aasaasay Qaramada Midoobay. Axdiga (charter) golahan adduunka ee sharfani waxa uu inoo tilmaamay xorriyadda iyo caddaaladda dhammaan qaramada adduunka ee nabadda jecel.

Laakiin waxii aan aragnay intii ay socotay dooddii waydiinta ku saabsan mustacmaradihii hore ee Talyaaniga kalfadhigii Golaha Guud ee Qaramada Midoobay waa wax liddi ku ah waxii aan filaynnay. Halkii aan ka sugaynay xorriyaddii la inoo ballanqaaday waxa aan aragnay in dawladaha qaarkood, ay ka mid yihiin quwadaha waawayn, ay doonayaan in ay dib noogu celiyaan addoonsi.

Halkan [hoos] waxa aan ku soo gudbinaynaa qaar ka mid ah sababaha ugu waawayn ee aan warqaddan ugu xulannay cinwaanka aan wanaagsanayn:

April 11, 1949, Count Carlo Sforza, Wasiirka Arrimaha Dibadda ee Talyaaniga waxa uu guddida koowaad ee Golaha Guud ee Qaramada Midoobay (Part II of the third regular session) ka horjeediyay khubad muhiim ahayd. Khudbaddiisa waxa uu si kulul digniin ugu jeediyay reer Yurubka Guddida ku jira, asaga oo digniintiisa ugu sheegay in Yurub ay tan iyo Dagaalkii Koowaad lumisay qiime wayn oo ay Yurub ku lahayd Afrika. Waxa uu na yiri:

“Be aware of Europe, I tell you. It will be remembered that Europeans were in Africa, before 1914 believed to be almost demi-gods.”

Waa ay caddahay in Wasiirka Arrimaha Dibadda ee Talyaaniga cusub ee dimoqraaddiga ahi uu aad u niyad xun yahay waayo dadka Afrikaanku hadda reer Yurub u ma arkaan “demi-gods.” Count Sforza waxa uu intaas ku sii daray:

“The Afrikaanku waxa ay arkeen hooggii iyo ceentii dagaalkii koowaad ee adduunka kaas oo ay u arkaan dagaal sokeeye [oo reer Yurub u dhexeeya].

Sidaa oo kale waxaa cad in Wasiirka Arrimaha Dibadda ee Talyaaniga dimoqraaddiga ahi uu dagaallada reer Yurub dhexmara u arko hoog iyo fadeexo xataa dagaalkii ka dhanka ahaa Naasiga-Fashiistaha ahaa. Halka uu doorbidayo in la maquuniyo ummadaha la gumaysto ee Afrika iyo kuwa kale ee adduunkaba.

Count Sforza waxa uu qaramada Yurub uga digay in haddii ay lumiyaan Afrika ay Yurub la mid noqon doonto tuulo yar (small hamlet) oo Eeshiyaan ah. Aynnu soo xiganno khudbaddiisi:

“The Europeans in this Committee will remember that six thousand years ago Europe was a small hamlet of Eastern Asia. Asia is coming again to greatness to which she is entitled, but if we are going to fail in Africa, I am not sure that Europe will not again become the miserable peninsula which it was six thousand years ago.” 

Waxaa halkan inooga muuqda in hoggaamiyayaasha Talyaaniga cusub ee dimoqraaddiga ahi ay maaggan yihiin sidii ay qaaradda Africa oo dhan u hoos hayn lahaayeen awoodaha reer Yurub haddii kale Yurub waxa noqonaysaa gacan yar oo jaahwareersan sidii ay lix kun oo sannadood ka hor ahayd.

Khudbaddan Count waxa uu ku muujiyay welwelka iyo cabsida gunta dheer ee uu ka qabo Eeshiya wayn oo awood badan. Count Sforza, sida qaar badan oo hoggaamiyayaasha dalalka gumaysigu, waa uu argagaxsan yahay waayo Yurub waxa ay lumisay ku dhawaad Eeshiya oo dhan. Count iyo saaxiibbadiis waxa ay caddeeyeen cadaawadda bannaanyaalka ah ee ay u qabaan halganka sharciga ah ee dadyowga Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaya [Malaysiya] iyo qaybaha kale ee Eeshiyaanku ku doonayaan gobonnimadooda. In badan oo dalalkan ka mid ahi qarniyo badan bay dhibbanayaal u ahaayeen burcadnimada, arxan la’aanta iyo macangagnimada reer Yurub.

Waxa ay u eg tahay in Count Sforza rumaysan yahay in go’aanka aaya-ka-tashashiga mustacmaradihii hore ee Talyaanigu yahay arrin u gaar dawladaha Yurub oo ayaga un ay go’aan ka gaari karaan. Aynnu soo xiganno jumlad uu khudbaddiisa aad ugu soo celceliyay:

“Do we want to create again in Africa the impression that Europe is unable to reach agreement, or rather the impression thay Europe is able to reach agreement…” 

Falcelinta xubnaha guddida ee aan reer Yurub ahayni waxa ay ahayd mid degdeg ah. Si xushmad leh ayayna farta ugu fiiqeen in Count Sforza u muuqda nin gole reer Yurub u khudbaynaya beddalka Golaha Guud ee Qaramada Midoobay.

Count Sforza waxa uu si qorodheer ugu nuuxnuuxsaday qorshaha wayn ee socda kaas oo ku saabsan abuurista midnimo reer Yurub samaystaan. Intii ay socotay khudbaddiisu waxa uu carrabka ku celceliyay midowga kastamada iyo dhaqaalaha ee Faransiiska iyo Jarmalka.

Wasiirka Arrimaha Dibadda ee Talyaaniga cusub ee dimoqraaddiga ahi waxa uu toos ah u caddeeyay in uu doonayo in Afarta Qodob² ee madaxweyne Truman u adeegsado dhaca gees walba oo qaaradda Afrika ka mid ah asaga oo ku gabbanaya gacmaha Midnimada Yurub. Waa aan fahnsannahay in afarta Qodob ee madaxweyne Truman ujeeddadoodu tahay caawimaado farsamo iyo kuwo kale oo dawladda Maraykanku u fidinayso dalalka soo koraya. Laakiin, marka loo eego hadalka Count Sforza, Talyaanigu waxa uu doonayaa in uu kaalmada Maraykanka u adeegsado ujeeddo aan ahayn midda Maraykanka deeqda bixinayaa doonayo.

Wasiirka Arrimah Dibadda Talyaanigu waxa uu ku dooday in dadka Talyaaniga ah ee Afrika ku nooli ay tihiin “Afrikanders” sida kuwa ku nool Koofur Afrika. Mar kale aan soo xiganno hadalkiisi:

“These men are no more simply Italians, they are also Afrikanders, like their fellow-farmers and industrialists of South Africa.”

Hadalkan Count Sforza waxa uu dhulka Soomaaliyeed ka kiciyay dareen anfariir iyo argagax leh. Sababta ay dadkeennu dareenka argagaxa leh u qaadeen ma ahan mid adag oo la fahmi waayo. Soomaalidu waxa ay ka warqabaan xalaadda argagaxa leh ee maanta ka taagan Koofur Afrika.

Looma baahna faahfaahin iyo falanqayn dheer oo arrintan ku saabsan maadaama adduunka oo dhani ka dheragsan yahay xaaladda argagaxa leh ee Koofur Afrika ku sugan tahay. Tani waa waxa uu weriye Maraykan ahi ka yiri Koofur Afrika maqaal uu ku daabacay New York Time Magazine September 18keedi, 1949:

“In neighbouring South Africa, Prime Minister Malan and his Nationalist—frankly pro-Nazi in the last war—are relentlessly coupling their expansion policy with ‘apartheid,’ the doctrine which in America would be called white supremacy or Jim-Crowism. ‘Apartheid’ there already has stripped natives of what little say they had in government, and it even goes so far as to set up separate counters in post offices of natives and whites. It applies, too, to ‘coloreds’—half castes and East Idians—and is anti-Semitic…”

Maanta dadyowg Afrikaanku waxa ay wajahayaan cabsi la mid ah middii Yurub ay wajahaysay maalmihii ay ku hoos jirtay Naasigii-Fashiistaha ahaa. Si la mid ah sidii dadyowga Yurub u la noolaaayeen khatar iyo hubanti la’aan jiritaankooduna si maalinle ah halis ugu sugnaa. Dagaalkii labaadi waxa uu ka dhashay khatartaas laga baaqsan kari waayay. Ugu yaraan dagaalkii waxa uu ku dhammaaday guul lagu qanco: burburinta shayaaddiintii Naasigii-Fashiistaha ahaa iyo guusha xoogaggii xulafada. Laakiin maanta dadyowga Afrika waxa ay wajahayaan halis la mid ah, haddiiba aysan ka waynayn tii reer Yurub wajahayeen ka hor maalintii guusha ee V.E. Day. Aragtida Naasiga ee dawladda Koofur Afrika waxa ay walaac wayn ku haysaa dadyowga Afrika.

Haddii Italy ku guulaysato sheegakada imbaraaddooriyadeed ee caddaaladdarrada ah yoolkeedu waa in au dhulkeenna ka hirgeliso maamul u eg kan Koofur Afrika, maamul u khaas ah dadka Talyaanigu ama “Afrikanders” sida uu Count ku dooday.

Soomaalidu maadaama ay ku baraarugsan yihiin halistan, waxa ay diidi doonaan xukun Talyaani nooca uu doono iyo magac uu doonaba ha sheegtee. Soomaalidu waa ay iska celin doonaan xataa haddii ay ugu kacayso qiime aad u wayn, soo noqoshada taliskii ka necbaa ee Talyaaniga.

Waxa aan jecel nahay in aan caddaynno in aynnaan necbayn dadka reer Yurub xumaato gooni ah aynaan u ahayn. Beddalkeeda waxa aynnu garowsannahay in tiro badan oo dalal reer Yurub ahi ay ku jiraan dalalkii diiday qorshihii imbaraaddooriyadeed ee loo yaqaannay heshiiskii Bevin-Sforza. Qaar ka mid ah dalalkani waxa ay gaareen ilaa heer ay cambaareeyaan siyaasadaha faquuqa ah ee ka dhanka bini-aadnimada ee quwadaha gumaysiga, and sarraynta ninka cad ee lagu sandulleeyay dadyowga aan reer Yurub ahayn. Si gun dheer baan abaal uga haynnaa dalalkaas sharfan ee reer Yurub iyo kuwa kale ee naga badbaadiyay in mar labaad dadkeenna addoonsi lagu celiyo.

Ujeeddadeenna cadi waa in aan xiriir saaxiibnimo la yeelanno dhammaan dadyowga adduunka midabkii ay doonaan, afkii ay doonaan, dhaqan iyo diintii ay doonaanba ha yeesheene. Iskaashiga nooc ahi keliya waxa uu ku imaan karaa sinnaanta.

Dhanka kale, waxa aynnu si xooggan uga soo horjeednaa gumaysiga nooc walba oo uu yahay. Ka ma hagran doonno maal iyo muruq in aan gumaysiga la dirirno—gumaysi Yurub ama mid kale oo lagu doonayo in dadkeenna lagu qabsado dalkeenna lagu mooraduugo.

Waxa aan rumaysannahay in Qaramada Midoobay tahay urur caalamiga ah oo dhammaan dadyowga aduunku mushkiladahooda si caddaalad ah ugu xalliyaan ayada oo aan loo eegin diin, midan, af iyo dhaqan. Gole tixgeliya doonista iyo daryeelka dadyowga. Laakin waxa muuqata in dawladaha qaarkood ururkan sharfan ee caalamiga ah u adeegsanayaan danahooda siyaasadeed iyo kooxeed ee gaarka ah. Waxa aynnu golaha u soo jeedinaynaa in ay ka hortagaan dalalkaas iyo qof walba oo doonaya si xun u adeegsiga ururkan sharfan ee caalamiga ah.

Waxa ay u eg tahay in xataa dalalka qaarkodo doonayaan in ay dib u soo nooleeyaan qorshihii Bevin-Sforza [ee goluhu horay u diiday] ayaga oo doonaya in ay nagu soo celiyaan taliskii la nacbaysto ee Talyaaniga kaas oo na haysan doona ilaa waqti aan la aqoon dhammaadkiisa. Haddii dalalkani ku guulaystaan qorshohoodaas ibliis ee imbaraaddooriyadeed, haddee, dadyowga adduunku, gaar ahaan dalalka weli gumaysiga ku hoos jiraa waxa ay golahan u arki doonaan goob u furan gorgortanno iyo dallaalnimo siyaasadeed halkii ay ahaan lahayd goob caddaalad iyo sinnaaneed sida laga filayo.

Mar kale, haddii golahani go’aamiyo si ka dhan ah doonista iyo daryeelka dadkeenna uu na goosto in uu nagu soo celiyo xukunkii Talyaaniga, xubnahan sharfanow sidee nooga fili kartaan in aad aaminaad iyo kalsooni ku qabso Qaramada Midoobay maadaama bilowgiiba aan aragnay in la inkiro in doonista iyo daryeelka la iska dhagatiray?

Mar labaad, mudanayaasha sharfanow waxa aan idinka codsanaynaa inaydnaan dadkeenna dhaafsan gorgortan siyaasadeed. Waxa aan idinka codsanaynaa in qayimku toosani idin hago kaas oo keliya aan saldhig u ahayn heshiis nabadeed ee Talyaanigu saxiixay [dagaalka ka dib] balse sidaa oo kale saldhig u ah axdiga Qaramada Midoobay kaas oo leh “that the wishes and welfare of the inhabitants of non-sefl-governing territories and paramount.” 

Waxa aan si dhab ah u rumaysannahay in xubnahan sharfan ee goluhu uu si mug leh uga fiirsan doono doonista sharciga ah ee dadka Soomaaliyeed. Waxa aan aaminsannahay in dawladaha sharfan ee xubnaha ka ah goluhu ay dhinac isaga leexin doonaan dhammaan danaha shalhsiyadeed ama kooxeed, gorgortanka iyo murannada ay si caddaalad ah u go’aamin doonaan aayaha dadka Soomaaliyeed iyo kan dalkooda.

 

We beg to remai, honorable members.

Yours respectfully,

Cabdullaahi Ciise

Ismaaciil Xassan

 

Cagadhig (footnotes)

 

1. Four Power Commission waxa ay Muqdisho yimaadeen 20kii January, 1948. Waxa ay la kulmeen shan xubnood oo ka socday SYL oo kala ahaa:

A. Xaaji Maxamed Xuseen (SYL CHAIRMAN)

B. Cabdullaahi Ciise (SYL SECRETARY-GENERAL)

C. Shariif Maxamuud cabdiraxmaan (Member)

D. Xaaji Faarax Cali Cumar (Member)

E. Maxamed Axmed (member).

 

2. Caleemasaarkiisi labaad ee xafiiska loogu dheeriyay 20kii January, 1949 ayuu madaxweyne Harry Truman ku soo bandhigay siyaasadda dawladda Maraykanka ee ku wajahan dalalka soo koraya taas loogu walqalay :the Four Point Program.” Qorshahani waxa uu ku lammaansanaa qorshihii Maraykanka ee dibudhiska Yurub ee loo yaqaannay “Marshal Plan”.

Cali M. Diini April 15, 1949

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